The beautiful harbor of Livorno.
It was founded on a former auxiliary Pisan port between 1576 and the early 17th century, on the orders of the Grand Duke Cosimo I who made it Tuscany's main outlet to the sea after the Pisan port was filled in. Originally constructed to a pentagonal design and with a still visible orthogonal street system, the town grew in the 19th century; it suffered serious damage during the last War and now has a modern appearance.
Monuments: Fortezza Vecchia (16th century), church of S. Ferdinando (Baroque, early 19th century), Porto Mediceo, Duomo (16th century, reconstructed after the War), Monument to Ferdinando I, called the `4 Moors' (17th century). As well as a busy commercial port (one of the most important in Italy) and facilitated by good motorway (Genoa-Leghorn) and rail links.
Economy: Leghorn has a large industrial sector: shipyards, chemicals, petrochemicals (refineries), engineering and canning. There are considerable tourism centres around the seaside resorts of Ardenza, Antignano and Quercianella.
Events: Palio Marinaro (July), A. Modigliani Art Award.
Famous People: Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi (writer and politician, 1804-1873), Dino Provenzal (writer, 1852-1922), Giovanni Fattori (artist, 1825-1908), Amedeo Modigliani (artist, 1884-1920), Pietro Mascagni (musician, 1864-1945), Dario Niccodemi (playwright, 1874-1934).
Cultural Institutions: Guerrazzi Library, Giovanni Fattori Civic Museum (modern paintings), Progressive Museum of Contemporary Art, State Archives, Goldoni Theatre, Town Aquarium, Centre of Marine Biology, Naval Academy.
PLACES OF CULT The territory of Leghorn is full of historic and architectural evidence of the religions practised here throughout the centuries and co-existing in the city; there are in fact many places
of cult of the various communities: Jewish, Greek, Armenian, Dutch-Germanic and English.
PRINCIPAL CHURCHES - Very interesting from a historic-artistic viewpoint
? Church of the Armenians - via della Madonna Erected by Giovanni Del Fantasia in the XVIII century, it constitutes an important testimony to the presence of Armenians in Leghorn. Its interior was destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, so now only the splendid baroque façade can be admired.
? Church of the United Greeks - via della Madonna Designed by Alessandro Pieroni during the XVII century, it is one of the oldest churches in Leghorn. Its baroque façade and its iconostasis in wood (1641) are valuable.
? Church of Luogo Pio - piazza del Luogo Pio Built in the XVIII century and designed by Giovanni
Del Fantasia, it is a remarkable example of late baroque art. Deconsecrated, it is now closed and being restored.
? Church of the Madonna - via della Madonna Built in the XVII century and designed by Alessandro Pieroni, it still has its original structure. The cloister too is noteworthy, also by Pieroni.
? Church of the Dutch - Scali degli Olandesi A Testimony to the ?Flemish Nation?, present
in Leghorn since the seventeenth century, its was erected in the XIX century.
? Church of Saint Catherine - piazza dei Domenicani With its octagonal shape, designed by the architect Giovanni Del Fantasia, it was officially inaugurated in 1755. Inside, there is a large altarpiece by Giorgio Vasari, representing the crowning of the Virgin, and frescos by Terreni and Traballesi.
? Church of Saint Ferdinand - piazza Anita Garibaldi An example of late baroque art, it was built in the XVIII century for the Trinitarian Fathers. It is also known as church ?of the little cross?,
and is interesting because of its sculptures, by Giovanni Baratta from Carrara.
? Church of Saint Julia - via Santa Giulia Dedicated to Saint Julia, patron saint of Leghorn, it was build in 1602-1603 on the orders of Ferdinando I dei Medici, grand-duke of Tuscany. There is a valuable Giotto-School painting above the main altar.
? Church of Saint Jacopo in Acquaviva - piazza San Jacopo in Acquaviva Erected on a fourth-century hermitage, after much destruction and rebuilding it was enlarged and oriented towards Leghorn, acquiring its present features, between 1759 and 1762. On the orders of the Grand-Dukes of Tuscany it became the first church of the Greek community. From within one can access the nave and the crypt of the previous Romanesque church.
? Cathedral - piazza Grande Building began in 1594 on a design by Alessandro Pieroni and continued under the management of the architect Antonio Cantagallina; it was completed
in 1606. Although it was totally rebuilt after bombings, it still has its original structure.
? Sanctuary of Montenero - piazza di Montenero Dedicated to the Madonna of the Graces, patron of Tuscany, the Sanctuary was built in the place where, in the XIV century, an oratory had been erected, and obtained its present structure during the last works of enlargement carried out between 1721 and 1774 and planned by Giovanni Del Fantasia.
? Israelite Temple - piazza Benamozegh The original synagogue, built between 1591 and 1603, and among the most beautiful in Europe, was completely destroyed by bombing during the last world war. The new temple was rebuilt and designed by the Roman architect Angelo Di Castro.
There are many cemeteries in Leghorn that are interesting from a historic-artistic viewpoint,
a testimony to the presence of the various ?Nations?.
? New Hebrew Cemetery (1898) - via Filzi
? Old Hebrew Cemetery (approx. 1840) - via Ippolito Nievo
? Greek-Orthodox Cemetery (1840) - via Mastacchi
? Old English Cemetery (first half of the XVIII century) - via Verdi
? New English Cemetery (1840) - via Mastacchi - via Pera
? Dutch-Germanic Cemetery (1840) - via Mastacchi
In the Province: Piombino (iron and steel works), Rosignano Marittimo (chemical factories), Populonia (Etruscan museum and necropolis), Campiglia Marittima (environmental interest), Castiglioncello (seaside resort), Island of Elba.